History pen history timeline

History Montblanc, synonymous with exquisite writing culture for the past 100 years, follows lasting values such as quality and traditional craftsmanship. Its uncompromising demands on shape, style, materials and workmanship are reflected in all its products. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1906

The start of the "modern" new century had a simulating effect on inventors and craftsmen. Ingenuity and imagination helped the fountain pen to make its technical and commercial breakthrough as a writing instrument. It was a Hamburg banker, Alfred Nehemias, and a Berlin engineer, August Eberstein, together who recognised the signs of time and decided to produce simplicissimus pens. After a short period of time Wilhelm Dziambor, Christian Lausen and later Claus Johannes Voss took over the business and thus laid the foundation for the future internationally successful company Montblanc.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1908

“Manufacturers of high-class gold and fountain pens” - Montblanc started its history by making this confident claim for itself. For the time being, the partners took the name “Simplo Filler Pen Co.”. “Simplo” referred to either the idea of the simplicissimus pen or the word “simple,” which described new pen design, including a “build-in” ink-well. After the Hamburg businessman Claus Johannes Voss joined the company, the “Simplo Filler Pen Co.” was established with its headquarter situated in the “Industriepalast” on Caffamacherreihe in Hamburg and received entry into the commercial register.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1909

The safety fountain pen “Rouge et Noir” appeared on the market. The name “Montblanc” was established; and rumour has it that it took place during a card game when a relative of one of the partners drew an inspired analogy between the pen, which had become the pinnacle of writing instruments, and the Mont Blanc, the most majestic and highest peak in the Alps.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1910

The name “Montblanc“ was registered as a trademark and henceforth used for all writing instruments produced by the company. Furthermore the technically improved fountain pen “Montblanc“ was introduced. The white tip on the pen cap was the forerunner of what would become the world famous white star. Paris and London became the venues of Simplo‘s first representatives abroad.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1913

The Montblanc star emblem became the brand logo and trademark. All writing instruments produced by the “Simplo Filler Pen Co. “ ever since would include the unmistakable rounded star. The shape would represent the snow-covered peak of the Mont Blanc - the highest European mountain, symbolising the brand’s commitment to the highest quality and finest European craftsmanship.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1924

It was the year of the launch of the legendary “Meisterstück” and the beginning of its successful career as the world’s most celebrated writing instrument of all time. The "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen soon became the ultimate symbol for writing culture and the style icon for perfect timeless design.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1926

At the end of the nineteen-twenties, Montblanc quickly expanded to become a well known name in more than 60 countries. Impressive advertising campaigns, like fitting cars with an oversize fountain pen, as well as the first advertising planes taking the Montblanc name into the “third dimension”, attracted tremendous attention. Montblanc also established its first leather goods workshop producing luxury small leather items near Offenbach, a town renowned for its leather craftsmanship.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1929

For the first time, the heart of the Montblanc "Meisterstück" - its nib - was engraved with the number “4810.” This represents the height of the mountain Mont Blanc, and acts as a sign of supreme quality, and "4810" would find a place on all "Meisterstück" nibs from this time forth.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1934

The company was officially given the name that had already become a brand all over the world: “Montblanc Simplo GmbH.”

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1935

By issuing a “lifetime guarantee" for the "Meisterstück," Montblanc demonstrated that it always paid off for the customer to opt for the very best. Montblanc expanded its product range by taking over a producer of leather goods in Offenbach, Germany. High quality leather products such as pen pouches, notebooks and writing cases were produced under the name Montblanc from then on

1946

The Montblanc facilities destroyed during the Second World War were quickly rebuilt. During this time, Montblanc fountain pens were being produced in Denmark, and representative offices had begun to be re-established abroad.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1952

The legendary “Meisterstück 149” was launched and began its successful career as the world’s most celebrated writing instrument of all time. The "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen soon became the ultimate symbol for writing culture and a style icon for perfect, timeless design.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1955

Montblanc launched the "60 Line," representing a new style of design and developing into the first major success in the post-war period, alongside the traditional "Meisterstück" series.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1963

”May I help you, Mr. Adenauer?” – John F. Kennedy helped the German chancellor Konrad Adenauer out of a predicament by offering him the use of his "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1986

This famous claim “Montblanc - The Art of Writing” was launched and became a model for many brands in the luxury field. The fountain pen - an ideal writing instrument - started to experience a renaissance in the Eighties. The “Meisterstück Solitaire Collection," the precious metal version of the Meisterstück, was introduced. Numerous international sponsorship initiatives in the areas of literature, ballet and music marked the beginning of Montblanc’s world-wide commitment to art and culture.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1989

Montblanc moved into new, purpose-built headquarters in Hamburg, integrating design, production and administration, as well as the Montblanc Museum.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1990

Montblanc opened its first boutique in Hong Kong. After initial developments in Asia, the first shops in Europe opened in Paris and London marking the beginning of the expansion of the international Montblanc boutique network, which today consists of more than 350 boutiques in more than 70 countries.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1992

Montblanc established the Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award to honour outstanding patrons of the arts. The first Patron of Art Limited Edition pen “Lorenzo di Medici” and the Limited Writers Edition “Hemingway” were launched - the first of the annual editions that are coveted by collectors worldwide. There was expansion of the Meisterstück range, introducing the product line “New Dimensions” - including small luxury leather goods, handmade paper and desk accessories.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1993

The Dunhill Holding Company, which had bought a major stake of Montblanc in the eighties, was acquired by the Vendôme Luxury Group S.A. in Luxembourg and combined all luxury good companies. It would later become the Richemont Group, the second largest luxury group in the world, including Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Vacheron Constantin, Jaeger-LeCoultre and IWC amongst others.

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The Meisterstück Solitaire Royal, painstakingly set by hand with 4,810 diamonds, became the world's most expensive fountain pen.

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Montblanc became the founding sponsor of the Philharmonia of Nations, under the direction of conductor Professor Justus Frantz.

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Montblanc successfully entered the men's jewelry field with the "Meisterstück Jewelry Collection" - precious accessories for men, completing the "Meisterstück" writing instrument range.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1997

Montblanc Montre S.A. was established in Le Locle - the heart of the Swiss watch industry - to maintain the brand’s philosophy of master craftsmanship and to satisfy the high quality expectations made on Meisterstück watches. Montblanc attracted great attention and recognition among top international jewelers when it participated in the Salon International de Haute Horlogerie (SIHH), the leading watch fair in Geneva and presented the masterly handcrafted Meisterstück watch for the very first time. Furthermore, the third size of writing instruments – the pocket-sized mini "Meisterstück Hommage à Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" - was introduced to the market.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2000

"Bohéme" - Montblanc's first major new collection of writing instruments since "Meisterstück" - was launched, devoted to passionate enjoyment of the best in life. The "Meisterstück Sports" watch collection came to full, active life with the release of seven precious, robust and ruggedly functional timepieces. The concept of the "Donation Pen" continued with "Yehudi Menuhin" – the new donation pen in cooperation with the Philharnonie of the Nations.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2002

Foundation of the Montblanc Cutting Edge Art Collection, comprising works by internationally renowned contemporary artists, each asked to interpret the world-famous Montblanc emblem individually and artistically, and displayed in the administration and production buildings of Montblanc's headquarters in Hamburg, the leather manufacture in Florence and the watch manu pwtqbeyt. pen animalfactures in both Le Locle and Villeret.

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Montblanc presented "StarWalker" - the new generation of writing instruments for younger enthusiasts drawn by the appeal of purist, aesthetic design.

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To fight the worldwide issue of illiteracy and to emphasize the importance of the written word Montblanc, in cooperation with UNICEF, asked 149 celebrities such as Mikhail Gorbatchev, Bianca Jagger, Nadja Auermann and Luciano Pavarotti to write a personal statement beginning with, “I like to write because…” with a "Montblanc Meisterstück 149" fountain pen. The statements, as well as the fountain pens with the celebrity’s engraved signature, were then auctioned off with all proceeds going directly to UNICEF.

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To celebrate the company’s 100th anniversary, Montblanc launched exclusive Anniversary Editions throughout the year, featuring the Montblanc Diamond. After eight years of research and development to achieve maximum brilliance, Montblanc was the first brand worldwide to possess its own patented diamond cut derived from its logo.

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Montblanc's watchmaking expertise was further enhanced by the creation of the Institut Minerva de Recherche en Haute Horlogerie at Villeret, Switzerland, perpetuating the rich tradition of Minerva, a small manufacture famed for its exceptional handmade movements, founded in 1858.

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At the Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie in Geneva, Montblanc unveiled the MB R100 caliber, the first movement manufactured entirely in its own workshops. Integrating the new movement, the Nicolas Rieussec Monopusher Chronograph paid tribute to the inventor of the chronograph, Nicolas Rieussec.

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In 2009 Montblanc reinforced its commitment to UNICEF with the launch of its global “Signature for Good” initiative. In this regard, Montblanc developed a unique collection of writing instruments, jewellery and accessories to help raise funds to support UNICEF in their work to provide a quality education to all children. For every piece in the Signature for Good collection sold in the US from June 1, 2009 until May 31, 2010, Montblanc donated 10% of the retail price to support UNICEF's education programs, guaranteeing a minimum of US $1.5 million worldwide from this and other programs.

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In 2010 Montblanc set new standards in watchmaking by unveiling the Metamorphosis - the first development of the Montblanc Villeret, founded by Montblanc as a dedication to safeguarding traditional Swiss watchmaking. By its revolutionary design and function the Metamorphosis watch transforms itself from one watch face to the other in a way that no watch has ever done before. It is a highly complex process with new and innovative mechanisms involving 50 individual components that move technically synchronously.

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The Tourbillon Bi-Cylindrique, with its caliber MB65.63, became the world’s first wristwatch to feature a tourbillon with two cylindrical balance springs, achieved by miniaturizing the escapement and transplanting it into a tourbillon, along with a cylindrical hairspring.

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Montblanc celebrated 20 years of the Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award and hosted the World Premiere Opening of the biggest Montblanc boutique in Sanlitun, Beijing. With 1,800m2 of floorspace and four stories, this innovative interactive concept store allows visitors to experience the whole world of Montblanc. Montblanc established its Pelletteria in Florence, the historic center of leather craftsmanship in Italy.

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In its Villeret 1858 collection, Montblanc previewed the most complicated timepiece yet, the ExoTourbillon Rattrapante, combining a split-second chronograph and Montblanc’s patented four-minute ExoTourbillon. Montblanc continued its support for UNICEF’s education programs, focusing on the most vulnerable children, through the Schools for Africa and Asia initiatives, and programs in Latin America. Montblanc built on the success of the first “Signature for Good” initiative launched in 2009 and pledged to raise at least $1.5 million in 2013. It exceeded its goal by raising more than $5 million. The Power of Words project was launched in association with the Mandela Foundation and the Tribeca Film Institute in April 2013. In a partnership with the Times Square Alliance, a short film featuring Mandela’s words and directed by Nabil Elderkin was projected in New York’s iconic Times Square every night, shortly before midnight.

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Montblanc celebrated the 90th anniversary of the iconic Meisterstück with a special edition collection of writing instruments featuring a unique 90 Years design, and a collection of Meisterstück Heritage timepieces. Montblanc Extreme - a collection of leather goods using innovative high-performance leather to achieve new heights in durability and performance - was launched in Florence. Montblanc embraced the digital world with the creation of the e-StarWalker and Pix, two custom mobile-ready styluses, digital writing devices for use with Samsung’s Galaxy Note.

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Montblanc appointed Charlotte Casiraghi, equestrian champion, writer and producer, as its global brand ambassador during the Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie. Montblanc introduced the TimeWalker Urban Speed e-Strap, combining a TimeWalker timepiece with a highly functional e-Strap with an integrated-technology device offering an activity tracker, smart notifications, remote controls and Find-Me functions.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1906

The start of the "modern" new century had a simulating effect on inventors and craftsmen. Ingenuity and imagination helped the fountain pen to make its technical and commercial breakthrough as a writing instrument. It was a Hamburg banker, Alfred Nehemias, and a Berlin engineer, August Eberstein, together who recognised the signs of time and decided to produce simplicissimus pens. After a short period of time Wilhelm Dziambor, Christian Lausen and later Claus Johannes Voss took over the business and thus laid the foundation for the future internationally successful company Montblanc.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1908

“Manufacturers of high-class gold and fountain pens” - Montblanc started its history by making this confident claim for itself. For the time being, the partners took the name “Simplo Filler Pen Co.”. “Simplo” referred to either the idea of the simplicissimus pen or the word “simple,” which described new pen design, including a “build-in” ink-well. After the Hamburg businessman Claus Johannes Voss joined the company, the “Simplo Filler Pen Co.” was established with its headquarter situated in the “Industriepalast” on Caffamacherreihe in Hamburg and received entry into the commercial register.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1909

The safety fountain pen “Rouge et Noir” appeared on the market. The name “Montblanc” was established; and rumour has it that it took place during a card game when a relative of one of the partners drew an inspired analogy between the pen, which had become the pinnacle of writing instruments, and the Mont Blanc, the most majestic and highest peak in the Alps.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1910

The name “Montblanc“ was registered as a trademark and henceforth used for all writing instruments produced by the company. Furthermore the technically improved fountain pen “Montblanc“ was introduced. The white tip on the pen cap was the forerunner of what would become the world famous white star. Paris and London became the venues of Simplo‘s first representatives abroad.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1913

The Montblanc star emblem became the brand logo and trademark. All writing instruments produced by the “Simplo Filler Pen Co. “ ever since would include the unmistakable rounded star. The shape would represent the snow-covered peak of the Mont Blanc - the highest European mountain, symbolising the brand’s commitment to the highest quality and finest European craftsmanship.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1924

It was the year of the launch of the legendary “Meisterstück” and the beginning of its successful career as the world’s most celebrated writing instrument of all time. The "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen soon became the ultimate symbol for writing culture and the style icon for perfect timeless design.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1926

At the end of the nineteen-twenties, Montblanc quickly expanded to become a well known name in more than 60 countries. Impressive advertising campaigns, like fitting cars with an oversize fountain pen, as well as the first advertising planes taking the Montblanc name into the “third dimension”, attracted tremendous attention. Montblanc also established its first leather goods workshop producing luxury small leather items near Offenbach, a town renowned for its leather craftsmanship.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1929

For the first time, the heart of the Montblanc "Meisterstück" - its nib - was engraved with the number “4810.” This represents the height of the mountain Mont Blanc, and acts as a sign of supreme quality, and "4810" would find a place on all "Meisterstück" nibs from this time forth.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1934

The company was officially given the name that had already become a brand all over the world: “Montblanc Simplo GmbH.”

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1935

By issuing a “lifetime guarantee" for the "Meisterstück," Montblanc demonstrated that it always paid off for the customer to opt for the very best. Montblanc expanded its product range by taking over a producer of leather goods in Offenbach, Germany. High quality leather products such as pen pouches, notebooks and writing cases were produced under the name Montblanc from then on

1946

The Montblanc facilities destroyed during the Second World War were quickly rebuilt. During this time, Montblanc fountain pens were being produced in Denmark, and representative offices had begun to be re-established abroad.

1952

The legendary “Meisterstück 149” was launched and began its successful career as the world’s most celebrated writing instrument of all time. The "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen soon became the ultimate symbol for writing culture and a style icon for perfect, timeless design.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1955

Montblanc launched the "60 Line," representing a new style of design and developing into the first major success in the post-war period, alongside the traditional "Meisterstück" series.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1963

”May I help you, Mr. Adenauer?” – John F. Kennedy helped the German chancellor Konrad Adenauer out of a predicament by offering him the use of his "Meisterstück 149" fountain pen.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1986

This famous claim “Montblanc - The Art of Writing” was launched and became a model for many brands in the luxury field. The fountain pen - an ideal writing instrument - started to experience a renaissance in the Eighties. The “Meisterstück Solitaire Collection," the precious metal version of the Meisterstück, was introduced. Numerous international sponsorship initiatives in the areas of literature, ballet and music marked the beginning of Montblanc’s world-wide commitment to art and culture.

1989

Montblanc moved into new, purpose-built headquarters in Hamburg, integrating design, production and administration, as well as the Montblanc Museum.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1990

Montblanc opened its first boutique in Hong Kong. After initial developments in Asia, the first shops in Europe opened in Paris and London marking the beginning of the expansion of the international Montblanc boutique network, which today consists of more than 350 boutiques in more than 70 countries.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1992

Montblanc established the Montblanc de la Culture Arts Patronage Award to honour outstanding patrons of the arts. The first Patron of Art Limited Edition pen “Lorenzo di Medici” and the Limited Writers Edition “Hemingway” were launched - the first of the annual editions that are coveted by collectors worldwide. There was expansion of the Meisterstück range, introducing the product line “New Dimensions” - including small luxury leather goods, handmade paper and desk accessories.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1993

The Dunhill Holding Company, which had bought a major stake of Montblanc in the eighties, was acquired by the Vendôme Luxury Group S.A. in Luxembourg and combined all luxury good companies. It would later become the Richemont Group, the second largest luxury group in the world, including Cartier, Van Cleef & Arpels, Vacheron Constantin, Jaeger-LeCoultre and IWC amongst others.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1994

The Meisterstück Solitaire Royal, painstakingly set by hand with 4,810 diamonds, became the world's most expensive fountain pen.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1995

Montblanc became the founding sponsor of the Philharmonia of Nations, under the direction of conductor Professor Justus Frantz.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1996

Montblanc successfully entered the men's jewelry field with the "Meisterstück Jewelry Collection" - precious accessories for men, completing the "Meisterstück" writing instrument range.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 1997

Montblanc Montre S.A. was established in Le Locle - the heart of the Swiss watch industry - to maintain the brand’s philosophy of master craftsmanship and to satisfy the high quality expectations made on Meisterstück watches. Montblanc attracted great attention and recognition among top international jewelers when it participated in the Salon International de Haute Horlogerie (SIHH), the leading watch fair in Geneva and presented the masterly handcrafted Meisterstück watch for the very first time. Furthermore, the third size of writing instruments – the pocket-sized mini "Meisterstück Hommage à Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart" - was introduced to the market.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2000

"Bohéme" - Montblanc's first major new collection of writing instruments since "Meisterstück" - was launched, devoted to passionate enjoyment of the best in life. The "Meisterstück Sports" watch collection came to full, active life with the release of seven precious, robust and ruggedly functional timepieces. The concept of the "Donation Pen" continued with "Yehudi Menuhin" – the new donation pen in cooperation with the Philharnonie of the Nations.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2002

Foundation of the Montblanc Cutting Edge Art Collection, comprising works by internationally renowned contemporary artists, each asked to interpret the world-famous Montblanc emblem individually and artistically, and displayed in the administration and production buildings of Montblanc's headquarters in Hamburg, the leather manufacture in Florence and the watch manufactures in both Le Locle and Villeret.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2003

Montblanc presented "StarWalker" - the new generation of writing instruments for younger enthusiasts drawn by the appeal of purist, aesthetic design.

Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Google Print 2004

To fight the worldwide issue of illiteracy and to emphasize the importance of the written word Montblanc, in cooperation with UNICEF, asked 149 celebrities such as Mikhail Gorbatchev, Bianca Jagger, Nadja Auermann and Luciano Pavarotti to write a personal statement beginning with, “I like to write because…” with a "Montblanc Meisterstück 149" fountain pen.
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Pens Mont blanc Outlet Online Technology & Education Home History Philosophy Sociocultural / Political Intellectual Property Everything Bad Is Good For You Educational Advocacy Organization Bibliography   A History of Technology in Education             Today, “educational technology” refers to computers and the Internet.   However, long before broadband, American schools have implemented technology with the goal of producing literate, moral and productive members of a democratic society.

1600s The Hornbook               The Hornbook, used commonly in the 1600 and 1700's, is a book that served as a primer for study in order to teach children to read. Hornbook's were typically made of wood, bone, or parchment, and protected by a sheet of transparent horn. (1) Hornbooks also typically had a handle in order to make them easier to read. Hornbooks commonly contained the alphabet, Roman numerals, and religious materials such as the Benediction and the Lord's Prayer. (2) Hornbooks were used before textbooks were commonly available in schools. The hornbook originated in England in the 15th century, and became rare in the 1800's when textbooks became cheaper.  1.  http://www.pocanticohills.org/franklin/hornbook.htm 2. http://www.cedu.niu.edu/blackwell/books.html

The New England Primer             The New England Primer, a textbook used by students in New England and other English settlements in North America, was first published in 1690 by Benjamin Harris. The New England primer was strongly influenced by the Puritan attitude and perspective of the times. Included in the book were the alphabet, vowels, consonants, religious maxims, moral lessons, and acronyms. A major emphasis was placed on the fear of sin, God’s punishment, and facing death. A famous verse in the primer: Now I lay me down to sleep, I pray, thee, Lord, my soul to keep: If I should die before I wake, I pray thee, Lord, my soul to take

1700s Slates                          A slate is a tablet used as a medium for writing. At a time when paper was quite expensive, slates were a cheap alternative for use in schools. Made of slate and framed in wood, the medium was inscribed with lines to guide the limits for upper and lower letters. This is similar to lines in a modern piece of notebook paper. Slates are typically written on using a soft slate pencil, soapstone, or chalk. Writing can be wiped away from a slate, similar to a chalkboard, using a rag or anything handy to function as an eraser. It was not uncommon for students to spit on slates to clean them, raising questions about hygiene in school. Through time, as paper became more common, we saw a decline in the use of slates. From slates to laptops we have come a long way.

Chalk Boards             In today’s modern classroom, the chalk board has become a useful bulletin for classroom information.   Before classrooms upgraded, there was once a time when the Chalk board was an essential tool for classroom instruction.  It was not until 1801, when the chalk board debuted in America and began to transform education.              The supply of paper during that time period, was not as abundant as it is today. There was also a shortage in pencils. The copy machine was not around during the 1800s so hand made copies were once the aches and pains of many teachers.             Students did have hand slates to write assignments on but even with hand slates, the teacher still had to write the assigned problem down on the slate for each student.   The chalk board did not come into existence until, a man named James Pillans created the first black board. According to the website, Ergo on demand a company that produced black boards and dry-erase boards, "James Pillans, head master of the old high school of Edinburg, Scotland, is widely credited for inventing the blackboard and colored chalk which he used to teach geography."  The idea of the blackboard soon came to the American schools when an instructor at West Point Military Academy, Mr. George Baron, used a large black board to teach a math lesson. For further information about the history of black boards in American schools, please click here .

1800s Fountain Pens                Like the pencil, the fountain pen has been extremely popular since its debut in 1884. The first successful patented fountain pen was developed by Lewis Waterman. Waterman was one of many who attempted to improve the common quill pen. “The writing instrument that dominated for the longest period in history (over one-thousand years) was the quillpen,” according to Mary Bellis, who wrote the article The history of the fountain pen . The quill pen was not very efficient because it only lasted for about a week before a replacement was needed.   The earlier patent fountain pen had inconsistencies that did not allow for proper ink flow. This created a document that was over run with large amounts of ink.             Lewis Waterman created a mechanism that consisted of three parts. According to Bellis, Waterman’s pen had, “The nib, which has the contact with the paper, the feed or black part under the nib controls the ink flow from the reservoir to the nib. The round barrel that holds the nib and feed on the writing end protects the ink reservoir internally (this is the part that you grip while writing).”            Fountain pens in later years were outsourced once the ball point pen arrived in 1938. To learn more about the fountain pen click here

Paper              The Egyptians developed papyrus 5000 years ago.   Papyrus was named after the Papyrus plant, which after stripping the plant, was formed into what resembled a sheet of paper.   It was not until the 10th century that paper made another advancement.   Arabians substituted linen fibers for wood and bamboo, which created a finer piece of paper.   With this adjustment to making paper, it became more durable and making copies of print was easier to read on this paper type. By this time, paper has reached Korea, Samarkand, Baghdad, Damascus and in later years Europe.             Two centuries later, technology advances beyond the scope of paper and papermaking has reached Europe. According to Wisconsin paper council, "In 1448, Johannes Gutenberg, was credited with inventing the printing press." Once the printing press was invented, the need for paper increased.   For more information on the paper trail, please click here .

Lead Pencils             The pencil comes in many varieties available to the public. There are traditional pencils, colored pencils, even mechanical pencils. Because of many pencil making companies, the cost of pencils can vary from fifty cents to two dollars. Back then there was just one kind of pencil that was available to the public. According to enchanted learning website, "the pencil was invented in 1564 when a huge graphite mine was discovered in Borrowdale, Cambria, England."             The website also states that, "pure graphite was sawn into sheets and then cut into square rods. The rods were then inserted into hand-carved wooden holders."   These wooden holding graphite tools were later known to be called the pencil.             Before the use of pencils, many people used a thin metal rod called a stylus that left a light readable mark on papyrus sheets.   Graphite was a better tool for writing because it left a darker mark on the latter improved paper. Although graphite was used to make a pencil, many people called it a lead pencil because of graphite’s physical characteristics. The enchanted learning website also states, “ it was not known at the time that graphite consisted of carbon and not lead.”             The pencil today has manufactures from many companies from Rose Art, Sanford, Eagle, and even Penway.  For further reading on the pencil and its transformations click

The Typewriter             An often overlooked form of technology, the typewriter is a mechanical invention that spans decades and implementations.   Developed by Remington Arms Company in 1873, which at the time was producing fire arms and sewing machines, the typewriter was initially restrictive because of its size . [1]   However, with years of refinement in the business world, typewriters were eventually introduced to elementary schools as early as the 1890s.   Id .   Between 1929 and1931, Ben Wood and Frank Freeman conducted a large-scale experiment to better understand the potential value of typewriters in the early elementary school classroom . [2]   Instead of focusing on the negative impacts a typewriter might have on a child’s writing development, the experiment proved to improve a child’s ability to read: out of 14,947 students, “[t]he children who had typing instruction actually spent only an hour or two a week…, yet at the end of the first year they outperformed the nontyping pupils in reading”( id .).   Even with Wood and Freeman’s recommendation, and teacher requests to prolong the study, the cost of introducing typewriters, especially in the wake of the Great Depression and national economic collapse, proved to be inhibitive.   However, it is easy to compare the experiment undertaken by Wood and Freeman to studies of computers conducted by scientist and educators during the late 1980s through to the present.      [1] http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=224708 [2] http://www.jstor.org/pss/1001415  

Film Edison said in 1913, "Scholars will soon be instructed through the eye.   It is possible to touch every branch of human knowledge with the motion picture”.             During the time when the cost of paper enabled the mass purchase of books and eliminated the slate as a primary educational tool, film also approached the educational horizon.   In 1889, the kinetoscope, now referred to as the motion picture, was developed with the hope that it would be able to provide an inexpensive means to educate a large influx of immigrant population to U.S. cities.   By 1902, Charles Urban began introducing scientific education films such as The Unseen World , which combined both series of short pictures and a microscope, and a series of geographical adventures to Borneo, the Alps, Canada and the Near East, which now are considered travelogues. [ 1]   Percy Smith, a friend and fellow scientist to Urban, assisted him by combining his interest in photography, his love of science and his experience as a retired functionary at the Board of Education.     Other filmographers, such as D.W. Griffith ( Birth of a Nation ) and George Kleine ( Catalogue of Education Motions Pictures ), contributed to and helped create a catalogue of over 1,000 educational film titles by 1910 . [2]                Despite the explosion of educational films, conflicts between the commercial interests and educational interests of the film industry emerged.   During the Prohibition Movement, as an ethical icon of the time, parents and schools both feared that films presented a door by which youth would enter into a sinful and immoral world.   Film makers, on the other hand, realized that youth patronage and parental support created their financial bottom line.   However, four major obstacles stifled the increased use of film in the classroom: (1) finding and fitting the right film to the curriculum, (2) inaccessibility of equipment that was needed, (3) cost of films, equipment, and upkeep, especially in the face of the Great Depression, and (4) teachers’ lack of skills in using equipment and film.  Today, teachers’ relationships with computers and the internet are an echo of the problems faced in the early 1900s . [3] [1] http://www.jstor.org/stable/1209964 [2] http://www.charlesurban.com/cutc.htm [3] http://www.titicaco.com/en/Expedition/Titicaco_Communicaring_School/Teachers_and_machines_since_1920/

1900s The Radio             The radio, as the film before it, was introduced as the “tool that would revolutionize classroom teaching ” [1] in the 1920s.   By 1923, the Radio Division of the Department of Commerce licensed time from commercial stations to broadcast education lessons.   With this federal interest, parental financial backing and dropping equipment prices by 1930, many more schools and districts bought equipment and made plans to use the radio in classrooms.   A study done in 1941 in Ohio found that a majority of schools had receivers; however, the study did not conclude whether or not educational programming, in fact, was implemented within the schools . [2]   The radio impacted higher education, including, for example, Penn State, Ohio State University, and University of Illinois, when they began to implement “schools in the air,” offering classes from agriculture to business through the institution run radio stations.   Educational technology supporters initially believed that the radio would eventually replace both schools and teachers.   By the 1940s, however, radio use in schools diminished significantly.   Saettler identified two factors reducing radio use: (1) schools fail to use the radio properly and (2) arising struggles between commercial stations and educators . [3]   In 1927, Herbert Hoover, who was then the Secretary of Commerce, voted to allow American business to run commercial radio stations instead of having radio under government control.   As a result, educational interests were overpowered by commercial radio stations .  Id . [1] http://www.faqs.org/childhood/Pa-Re/Radio.html [2] http://www.jstor.org/stable/1473784 [3] http://www.jstor.org/stable/3218168

The Photocopier             Chester Carlson developed the first xerographic image in his basement laboratory in Astoria, Queens in New York City, on October 22, 1938.   A patent attorney and part-time inventor, Carlson spent years trying to sell his invention without success.   Business executive of companies including IBM and General Electric did not believe there was a market for a copier when carbon paper “worked just fine.” [1]   By 1948, “Xerox” was coined and trademarked.   By 1961, the company owning the rights to Carlson’s invention became the Xerox Corporation after the introduction of the first copier machine, Xerox 914, housed in the Smithsonian Institute, was able to use ordinary paper.   In 2007, the Xerox Corporation grossed over 10 billion dollars.             Before computers provided on-line courses, electronic books or the Internet, the Xerox machine allowed teachers to make copies of excerpts from a variety of resources, providing more current information and presenting content that may not be found in a textbook or within school walls.   In 1994, it was believed that 84% of teachers in the U.S. believed that only one type of technology was essential: “a copy machine with an adequate supply of paper.” [2]    Further, the copier allowed teachers to not only change their resources from year to year, but also allowed them to vary their approach and material from class to class and from student to student.   To a certain extent, the copy machine, from 1960 until as late as the mid-90s, provided teachers with classroom material, options and efficiency that the Internet is hopefully going to improve and replace. [1] http://www.xerox.com [2] Abbot, Chris. (2001). ICT: Changing Things Educational .

Television             By the end of the 1940s, instead of focusing on educational radio, educators focused on television for its benefit of providing the visual effect that films introduced in combination with the audio benfit of radios as a new means of instruction.   In light of Russia’s launch of Sputnik in 1957, educational television was viewed as a means to technologically staying ahead of other countries.   In response to this, governmental and commercial sources started pouring in financial support and political clout.   For example, the Ford Foundation alone “expended more than $300 million ” [1] for the national education television movement.   In 1965, the Carnegie Corporation Commission recommended the government establish an independent, nonprofit Corporation for Public Television that would receive government and private support and distribute these funds to individual stations and production centers.   This suggestion helped to create and enact the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967.   Following in 1970, the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and Children’s Television Workshops were established and with them the shows directed at preschool and elementary school age children such as Sesame Street, 3-1-2 Contact, The Best of Families, The Electric Company, and Feeling Good.   However, by the 1980s, educators and parents alike feared that media content underwent a transformation that was characterized by increased use of sexual themes and violent behavior . [2]                By 1990, the Whittle Communications Corporation introduced Channel One satellite educational broadcasting for children at the elementary and secondary levels.   The company, in exchange for school assurance that each student would watch a minimum of twelve minutes, ten of local news and two of commercial advertisements, would provide all equipment and service expenses.   Teachers and parents posed and continue to pose opposition to Channel One in that they feel the classroom should not be another market place, describing a continued rift between educational and commercial interests. For a link to Chicagoland's Children's Television Workshop host, WTTW11, please click here: WTTW11 [1] http://www.springerlink.com/content/q2463764446135gj/ [2] http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2212/Media-Influence-on-Children.html

October 4, 1957 Sputnik             In the years following World War II, America rose to primacy in the world as an industrial, military and economic power.   While the stage was set for the Cold War to begin between the United States and the Former Soviet Union, the nation was largely concerned with internal politics rather than focusing on the communist threat located oceans away.    In 1957, racial tensions (especially highlighted in the desegregation of Little Rock schools) and domestic economic affairs were more immediate than the thought of Soviet supremacy in any area over the United States.   On October 4, 1957, this illusion was dispelled.   The Russian space agency (TASS) launched Sputnik, and Americans looked to the October sky to see the Soviet satellite beeping out the first victory in the Cold War’s battle for technological supremacy.   Americans perceived the satellite as the signpost stating their educational system failed in the areas of science and technology.

National Defense and Education Act of 1958              In response to Sputnik’s launch, Congress passed the National Defense and Education Act of 1958.   The general provisions of the bill state that “an educational emergency exists and requires action by the Federal government.   Assistance will come from Washington to help develop as rapidly as possible those skills essential to national security.”   The NDEA served as a reactionary response to the perceived subordination of American education in comparison to the F.S.U.   It increased federal expenditures on post-secondary education, established graduate funding and directed monetary focus towards the areas of math, science and foreign language.    The act decidedly ignored the areas of humanities and social sciences, focused as it was on issues concerning national security and the need to regain technological supremacy.   The act also called for the Federal government to take positions on educational methods that educators themselves debated, such as the use of film and television.   Fifty years later, the impact of the NDEA is still being analyzed by the government.  For more information on the National Defense Education Act, a historical overview is available at the Department of Education.  2006 Analysis of the National Defense Education act by the Science & Technology Policy Institute.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965             The Elementary and Secondary Education Act was enacted in 1965 and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The original sections of the 1965 law include the following: Title I—Financial Assistance For Local Educational Agencies In Areas Affected By Federal Activity Title II—Financial Assistance To Local Educational Agencies For The Education Of Children Of Low-Income Families Title III—Supplementary Educational Centers and Services Title IV—Educational Research And Training Title V—Grants To Strengthen State Departments Of Education Title VI—General Provisions             The ESEA is derived from the proposals of President Kennedy. Following his assassination, President Johnson reviewed his proposals and Congress derived the bill from them. The ESEA passed in 87 days with limited debate and no amendments. The act is an extensive statute which funds primary and secondary education. It was designed to address the problem of inequality in education that had been presented by civil rights activists. The funds from the act are authorized for use towards professional development, educational materials, and resources to support educational programs in general. The ESEA is typically reauthorized every 5 to 6 years. For more information on the ESEA please see the following link: http://www.gse.harvard.edu/news_events/features/2005/08/esea0819.html

Computers             Due to the passing of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, money was given to schools to bring in new technology. Some schools brought in mainframes and minicomputers, but these were not for student use.   Instead, these computers were for administration and for storing student data.  Starting in 1967, schools begin to offer computer maintenance in their vocational programs.   Computers were still too big to fit in a classroom and many schools deemed them inappropriate for the teacher/manger model of learning.   Computers did not see much use in the classroom until the invention of the PC.  It wasn’t until around 1983 when Apple’s Apple II PC begins to find widespread use in the classroom. Since then, computers have become a very prominent part of the education system. In the academic year 1984-85, 77.7% of schools had computers. By the 1993-94 school year, that number had grown to 97.5%.   Since then, computers have become a staple of the classroom. Computers are able to help enhance learning by playing on children’s curiosities and imaginations.   Information from various programs, such as digital encyclopedias, is more readily available to students.

The INTERNET              The Internet was introduced in 1969 for a system called ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) that connected four major universities via their computer systems. The system was developed to be used as an alternative mode of communication in case the war destroys the conventional communication system. E-mail was created soon after and Queen Elizabeth becomes the first world leader to send an e-mail.  The internet did not see widespread use until around 1995 when many businesses, school, and individuals develop web pages. Internet service via dial up was beginning to be offered to consumers on a large scale. By 1996, there were around 46 million people online with 30 million in North America alone.  Because of the vast amount of information available to the public through the internet, educators readily adopt its use in the classroom by 1997. Search engines such as Yahoo and Google develop ways to find information on the internet much easier. However, schools realized that information available to students through the internet must be controlled due to non-educational related information. Many schools set up firewalls to filter our sites that are deemed inappropriate for the classroom. By 2006, there are more than 92 million websites online and that number is moving rapidly up.

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All About BIC Pens > The History of the BIC Pen
BIC got started in 1945 when Marcel Bich and Edouard Buffard began manufacturing fountain pens in France. By 1950, the company was named "BIC" and the BIC Cristal ballpoint pen was introduced in France. In 1958, BIC came to the U.S. market acquiring the Waterman Pen organization.

By 1969, BIC pens had expanded through more areas of Europe, parts of Asia, Mexico, the Middle East and Africa and the company had created a strong following for its imprinted products. With its ever growing expertise in imprinting, BIC began to create products including the BIC lighter, shaver and white-out.

In 1997 BIC continued to increase its product offerings by acquiring the Sheaffer Pen Corporation to compete in the luxury fountain pen market, followed by the acqusition of Atchison Products Inc. in 2007 which allowed BIC to become a dominant market force in the promtional and personalized bag marketplace. Identifying new opportunties, BIC purchased Norwood Promotional Products, the 2nd largest supplier of non-apparel promotional products in the United States.

Throughout its history, BIC has maintained as a core values a prominent involvement in promoting social responsibility through its operations and products. With BIC's aggressive use of recycled and renewable materials, BIC has maintained a leadership position in manufacturing environmentally friendly products including as custom pens, logo pencils, promotional lighters, and personalized bags.


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